“People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them.”
James Baldwin 1924-1987
Take time to enjoy these amazing photos! They range from Bob Marley with the Jackson Five to Josephine Baker to the original Black Panthers. Guaranteed to increase your pulse, your pride and your knowledge.
Frederick Patterson Standing Beside a Patterson-Greenfield Automobile Chassis, ca. 1915.
Slave castle at Elmina, Central Region. The dungeons where slaves were
kept for months before being shipped out to the Western world. You can still
smell and see the blood, now black pigment, on the walls.
In 1967, Dr. Martin Luther King (right) appeared with Muhammad Ali
in Louisville to fight for fair housing.
Muhammad Ali and Stevie Wonder at The Apollo, 1963
Muhammad Ali and his daughter, Laila Ali by Michael Gaffney. 1978
22nd December 1971: Muhammad Ali trains for his fight against the West
German Jurgen Blin,with his daughters in tow.
Malcolm X leads a group of Black Muslim protestors carrying picket
signs demanding freedom of religion. 1963
Malcolm X in Sudan with Sheik Ahmed Hassoun, 1959
Alex Haley & Malcolm X
Malcolm X in Ghana, West Africa (1964)
Original six members of the Black Panther Party
for Self-Defense, Oakland, CA. (1966)
Top left to right: Elbert “Big Man” Howard, Huey P. Newton (Defense Minister),
Sherwin Forte, Bobby Seale (Chairman)
Bottom: Reggie Forte and Little Bobby Hutton (Treasurer)
Three massive lightning bolts hit the earth within 15 seconds at the
Voortrekker Monument just outside Pretoria, South Africa.
Black Ivy Panther
Councilman L.O. Payne’s all female black basketball team (1935)
9/2/1972-Munich, Germany- Uganda’s John Akii-Bua
( (December 3, 1949 – June 20, 1997) kisses
his gold medal out of sheer joy during the awards ceremony following
his win in the 400-meter hurdles event. Akii-Bua’s winning time of 47.82
seconds was a new world record for the event.Akii-Bua was the
first African to win gold in an event under 800 metres. He was also the
first man to break the 48 seconds barrier in the 400 metre hurdles, an event so
gruelling its nickname is ‘The Mankiller’. John Akii-Bua, is recognized as inventing
the victory lap. After winning gold at the 1972 Olympics in the 400m hurdles
he was so overwhelmed with joy that when a spectator handed him a Ugandan flag,
he ran around the track waving the flag, the first ever victory lap –
beginning the victor’s ‘lap of honour’ tradition.
Donnie & Roberta
Donny Hathaway, wife Eulaulah, and daughters Lalah and Kenya
A jam session with Duke Ellington. Photograph by Gjon Mili. 1940
Finding the unmarked trains designated for blacks involved guesswork.
Passengers had to jump across tracks, and some were killed by express trains
Bob Marley & the Wailers & The Jackson 5
86 Years of Marriage!!!! 104 and 101 yrs old wow!!!!!
Barack and Michelle Obama married on October 3rd in 1992 in Chicago, Illinois.
President Obama and his family arriving at the Martin Luther King Jr.
Memorial for today’s dedication ceremony.
The memorial to the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Is the first monument
on the National Mall and its adjoining parks to honor an African-American.
Diahann Carroll performing at JFK’s birthday party in 1962, with Marilyn Monroe
in the crowd watching. She looks pretty enamored!
Bern Keating, 1954, Mississippi / USA’Blacks seated in back of bus under
Mississippi segregation law’ / from ‘Black Star’
DeWitty/Audacious, Nebraska (1908Children of Black Homesteaders
in Cherry County, Nebraska
Ossie Davis & Ruby Dee they are a perfect example of everlasting
Black love!!!! 52yrs of marriage!!
Mnemba island, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Coco Island, Seychelles
Kalandula Falls, Malagne, Angola
Maletsunyane waterfall, Lesotho
Africa – Ethnolinguistic Map of the Peoples (1972)
Published in December 1971 with the article “The Zulus: Black Nation in a
Land of Apartheid,” this map is a supplement to the “Heritage of Africa” map
printed in the same issue. Featuring a physical map with the names of groups
and their languages, this map also contains beautiful illustrations and
interesting facts about the diverse peoples that inhabit the continent.
Josephine baker in the dressing room of the Johann Strauss
theater in Vienna, 1928
Demonstrators sit, with their feet in the Reflecting Pool, during the March
on Washington August 28, 1963
New York, New York, USA — 6/13/1958-New York, NY: Co-stars Lena Horne
andRicardo Montalban greet nine very special guests of the stage of the
Imperial Theatre, home ofthe musical comedy hit “Jamaica,” here June 13. Their
visitors are the Central High School students from Litte Rock, AR, who sucessfully
waged an integration battle last year
Lena Horne and Ricardo Montalban in rehearsal for the 1958 musical, Jamaica.
Huey Newton & Elaine Brown
Kathleen & Eldridge Cleaver, Black Panther Party for Self-Defense,
Minister of Information
Black Panther Party Breakfast Programs
Madame CJ Walker home
Double VV campaign in Harlem 1942
Ida B. Wells
Barnett, Ferdinand Lee (1864?-1932)Ferdinand Barnett,
Ida B. Wells and Their Family, 1917
Lena Horne and the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at a party
Ms. Horne gave in Dr. King’s honor in New York in 1963.
Stokely Carmichael, leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee;
the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., president of the Southern Christian Leadership
Conference;and Floyd McKissick, speaking, national director of
the Congress of Racial Equality.
Dr. King and Mrs. King with baby daughter in 1950’s
Dr. King delivers one of his last speeches in 1968
Desegregating bus in Montgomery, Alabama Ralph Abernathy,
unidentified woman, & Dr. King 1956
Martin Luther King, Jr. of SCLC With Stokely Carmichael of SNCC During the
March Against Fear in Mississippi, June 1966
Dorothy Dandridge by Edward Clark 1951
A couple who moved into an all-white neighborhood in Chicago looking at graffiti
in front of their home. Photograph by Francis Miller. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 1957
REDD FOXX, NANCY WILSON, HARRY BELAFONTE, SAMMY DAVIS JR. ELLA FITZGERALD,
BILLY ECKSTINE, JOE WILLIAMS & OTHERS IN VEGAS
Josephine Baker returns to the US, New York City, 1950
To counter the negative images of African Americans in the late 19th century,
W.E.B. Du Bois displayed portraits of middle-class blacks at the
Paris Exposition of 1900.” – The Root: The Talented Tenth in Pictures
One of the founders of Omega Psi Phi
Ernest Everett Just (August 14, 1883 – October 27, 1941) was
a pioneeringAfrican American biologist, academic and science writer.
Just’s primary legacy is his recognition of the fundamental role of the cell
surface in the development of organisms.In his work within marine biology,
cytology and parthenogenesis, he advocated the study of whole cells under
normal conditions, rather than simply breaking them apart in a laboratory setting.
Dr. Ernest E. Just (1883-1941)
Holiday sits with fellow jazz legends, vocalist Sarah Vaughan,
trumpeter Louis Armstrongand friend Howard Dennis in 1950.
Wilson Pickett and Jimi Hendrix, 1966.
Ella Fitzgerald, Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman, New York, 1948
Chicago Night Clubs, 1970sBetween 1975 and 1977, Michael Abramson
hit Chicago’s South Side night clubs – Perv’s House, Pepper’s Hideout,
The High Chaparral, The Patio Lounge, and The Showcase Lounge, not to
capture the artists on stage, instead popping off a half dozen rolls every
night on the crowd.
Richard Wright, photographed in his New York study by Gordon Parks, May 1943
African American baseball team, Danbury,
Connecticut Edward David Ritton, photographer ca. 1880
Nina Simone performing at the Pan-African Festival in Algiers (1969)
Lenny,Belafonte & Poitier at the NAACP Image Awards.
It took two Secret Service agents and a White House intern,
but they did finally pry her loose. LOL
GQ 1931 — Image from the book, “A True Likeness: The Black South of
Richard Samuel Roberts,1920-1936.” Richard Samuel Roberts, photographer.
African American Vernacular Photography
via Black History Album.
Minnie Riperton and her daughter Maya Rudolph.
Located in the Mahdia Governorate region of Tunisia, El Djem is home to
some of the most impressive Roman remains in Africa.
Howard University Graduating class of 1900
Howard university women watching a football game
Howard University featured in Life Magazine circa 1946
Howard UHoward University featured in Life Magazine circa 1946.
Howard University students photographed in their dorm by LIFE
magazine’s Alfred Eisenstaedtfor a November 1946 photo essay.
Alpha Kappa Alpha at Howard University, Washington, D.C. 1946.
Spelman College 1892
Beta Chapter, Alpha Phi Alpha, Howard University, 1913.
Vintage Harlem 1940’s
Mother grooming her daughter for healthiest-baby contest held
at all African American fair.
Memphis, TN, 1941.
Arturo Alfonso (January 24, 1874 –June 8, 1938) Schomburg was born in
Puerto Rico on January 24, 1874. He began his education in a primary school
in San Juan, where hestudied reading, penmanship, sacred history,
church history, arithmetic, Spanish grammar, history, agriculture and commerce.
Arturo’s fifth-grade teacher is said to have told him that “Black people
have no history, no heroes, no great moments.” Because of this and his
participation in a history club, Schomburg developed a thirst for knowledge
about people of African descent and began his lifelong quest studying the
history and collecting the books and artifacts that made up the core of his
unique and extensive library.
Willa Brown Chappell was a pioneering aviator who co-founded the
National Airmen’s Association of America, an organization whose mission
was to get African Americans into the United States Air Force. Inspired by
Bessie Coleman,Chappell (then known as Willa Beatrice Brown) started taking
flying lessons in 1934 atChicago’s Aeronautical University. She earned
her pilot’s license in 1937, making herthe first African-American woman to
be licensed to fly in the United States. In 1940, she and her first husband,
Lieutenant Cornelius R. Coffey started the Coffey School of Aeronautics, where
some of the approximately 200 pilots who trained there eventually became
“Tuskegee Airmen.” Born in Glasgow, Kentucky on January 22, 1906,
she died on July 18, 1992 at the age of 86.
We all know about the famous Tuskegee Airmen, but have you ever
thought about women being pilots in those times as well? Start thinking and
do your research on these extraordinary women.
Today we honor the often overlooked Tuskegee Airwomen.
Lena Horne with cadets at the Tuskegee Airbase in Tuskegee,Alabama in 1945.
Anderson, Charles A. “Chief” (1907-1996)
Eleanor Roosevelt and Charles Anderson, April 1941
On April 19, 1941, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt visited Tuskegee Institute.
During her visitshe asked Chief Anderson if African Americans could really navigate
the skies. Anderson invited her to fly with him. Mrs. Roosevelt agreed and was
flown over Tuskegee. This short but significant flight is credited with helping to
persuade President Franklin Roosevelt to establish military flight training at Tuskegee
later that year.
Archer, Lee (1919-2010)
Lee Andrew Archer Jr., Tuskegee Airman Ace in World War II, was born on
September 6, 1919 in Yonkers, New York. His father was Lee Archer, Sr. and his mother
was May Piper Archer. He was raised in Harlem and attended New York City’s
Dewitt Clinton High School. In 1941, he left New York University where he was majoring
in international relations to join the military. In 1941, Archer joined the Army and applied
to become a pilot in the Army Air Corps but was rejected because the Corps did not
allow blacks to become pilots during this time.
The Tuskegee Airmen were dedicated, determined young men who enlisted
to become America’s first black military airmen, at a time when there were
many people who thought that black men lacked intelligence, skill, courage
and patriotism. They came from every section of the country, with large numbers
coming from New York City, Washington, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia
and Detroit. Each one possessed a strong personal desire to serve the
United States of America at the best of his ability.
President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama greet Tuskegee
Airmen prior…to a screening of Red Tails Movie in the Family Theater
of the White House, Jan. 13, 2012.
Members of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion take part in a parade
ceremony in honor of Joan d’Arc at the marketplace where she was
burned at the stake (Rouen, France).
Huey Percy Newton, Co-Founder of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Monument to the African Renaissance. Dakar, Senegal
Luxor, Egypt (ancient temple near Nile river)
Temples of Abu Simbel, Nubia, Egypt
La Digue, Seychelles
Abu Simbel at Night
Make a Wish (Bronx Slave Market, 170th Street, New York), 1938
Members of the 32nd and 33rd Company’s Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps basketball team,
playing a game of basketball. Fort Huachuca Arizona ca. 1939-1945
Photograph of the Links Social Club, Los Angeles, ca. 1938
Dorothy Dandridge with beauty pageant contestants. Los Angeles, California 1946
Nelson Mandela wiping the tears of a very emotional Whitney Houston
on the steps of the Union Buildings in Pretoria in 1994.
Photograph taken at the trial of Emmett Till by the infamous civil rights
photographer, Ernest Withers who also doubled as a FBI Informant.
26th May 1963: American Heavyweight boxer, Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali),
in New York,dressed like a city gent in a suit and a bowler hat and carrying an umbrella.
Cesar Chavez and Bobby Seale meet students from Malcolm X Elementary, 1972.
A rare pic of First Lady Michelle Obama as a dancer.
James Baldwin and Lena Horne
The Kilimanjaro Presents Miss Tanzania 1967″ Dar-es-salaam.
Stylish Young Afr.Am. Couple plus 1
W. E. B. Du Bois Cutting the Birthday Cake for his 95th Birthday in Ghana, 1963
Children Dance to Rock ‘n Roll in in Harlem’s Mount Morris Park New York City, NY, 1968
Dorothy Counts(b. 1942)Dorothy Counts was the daughter of a
Johnson C. Smith University professor. At age 15, she became the first black
student to attend Charlotte’s all-white Harding High School. This action challenged
segregation, the practice of keeping people separated according to their race.
Blanche Calloway (February 9, 1904 – December 16, 1978) was a Jazz singer, bandleader,
and composer from Baltimore, Maryland. She is not as well known
as her younger brother Cab Calloway, but she may have been the first
woman to lead an all male orchestra. Cab Calloway often credited her with
being the reason he got into show business. She made her first recordings in
1925, with Louis Armstrong as a sideman on the session.
Marcus Garvey UNIA parade Marcus Garvey and his organization,
the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), represent the largest
mass movement in African-American history.
Brother Patrice Lumumba
The Coloured Hockey League of the Maritimes (1890s-1920s) Nova Scotian
Black Hockey Team, ca. 1910 Nova Scotia is considered the place of origin
of modern ice hockey.
Streeter, Mel (1931-2006) Mel Streeter was born
in Riverside, California in 1931. He attended the University of Oregon
on a basketball scholarship and was the second African-American
basketball player at Oregon after declining an offer by legendary
basketball coach John Wooden to attend UCLA, because UCLA
did not have an architecture program. Streeter graduated
with a bachelor’s degree in architecture in 1955.
In better times…Deion Sanders wife & kids at the Hall of Fame Induction.
Beautiful!!!!! with Snoop in the back
Hazel Scott (June 11, 1920 – October 2, 1981), a jazz and classical pianist
and singer with Lena Horne (June 30, 1917 – May 9, 2010), an American singer,
actress, civil rights activist and dancer.
Boley, Oklahoma (1903- ) Boley Town Council, ca. 1910
Simmons, Ruth (1945- ) Ruth Simmons is the first African American
to be named President of an Ivy League university. She is also the
first African American woman to lead any major university in the United States.
Simmons was sworn in as the 18th President of Brown University
in autumn 2001 and the University’s first woman President.
Highland Beach, Maryland (1893- ) Highland Beach Picnic Group, 1931
Dearfield, Colorado, 1910. After four years of searching for a location
that would accommodate two hundred families, Oliver Toussaint Jackson
established Dearfield, a black agricultural colony on the arid high plains
of Colorado. By 1915 Dearfield had gone from seven families living in tents,
dugouts and caves in the hillside to twenty-seven families living in wooden cabins.
The next five years would see the settlement grow to a population of seventy
with their own school, restaurant, grocery store, boarding house, and two
churches. Unfortunately the end of World War I in 1918 also brought an end to the
settlement’s sturdy growth. As the demand for their crops dropped the families
began to default on their mortgages and equipment loans. One by one the
families sold their farms until there were only twelve people living in Dearfield in 1940.
The last resident was Jackson’s niece Jenny Jackson, who lived there until her death in 1973.
Sign placed in front of the Memphis zoo in 1959 on Thursday Negro day, the only day of the
week that African Americans were allowed to visit the facility.
Lewis, Oliver (1856-1924)
In 1875, Oliver Lewis became the first jockey to win the Kentucky Derby,
America’s longest continuous sporting event
Coachman, Alice Marie (1923- ) Alice Coachman became the first African American
woman from any country to win an Olympic Gold Medal when she competed at the
1948 Summer Olympics in London. Born November 9, 1923, in Albany, Georgia, to
Evelyn and Fred Coachman, Alice was the fifth of ten children. As an athletic child
of the Jim Crow South, who was denied access to regular training facilities, Coachman
trained by running ondirt roads and creating her own hurdles to practice jumping.
Emancipation Day Parade, Richmond, Virginia, January 1,1905
Doris Miller, known as “Dorie” to shipmates and friends, was born in Waco, Texas,
on 12 October 1919, Famous for firing a 50 caliber Browning anti-aircraft machine
gun for 15 minutes during the attack until he ran out of ammo. (Ordinarily this is not
unusual – except that Dorie was the ships cook!) He was awarded the Navy Cross for his
actions beyond the call of duty.
The golden thirteen. In March, 1944, the first African-American naval officers
in U.S. history were commissioned at Great Lakes Naval Training Center. Twelve
ensigns and one warrant officer made American military history, and went on to
serve with distinction in World War II. They called themselves the Golden Thirteen.
One of these men, William S. White, went on to become a Judge on the
Illinois Appellate Court. Today, Building 1405, located on board
Recruit Training Command, is dedicated to the Golden Thirteen and their
significant contribution to history.
African american soliders of Troop C, 9th calvary regiment, at camp
Lawton, Washington before shipping out to the Philippines in 1900
1877 Henry O. Flipper becomes the first colored American
to graduate from West Point.
McLaurin, George W. (1887-1968)George W. McLaurin provided the
Oklahoma civil rights case that damaged the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
“separate but equal” legal position beyond repair. He held a master’s degree
from the University of Kansas and taught at the all-Black Langston University
until 1948. NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall, Oklahoma attorney
Amos T. Hall, and Black Dispatch newspaper editor Roscoe Dunjee
supported McLaurin’s efforts, along with five other African American students,
to pursue advanced professional degrees at the University of Oklahoma.
McLaurin’s cases worked in conjunction with Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher’s suit
to open higher education to African Americans in Oklahoma, and lay the
foundation for Brown v. Board of Education.
Booker T. Washington and his children Ernest Davidson Washington (standing left),
Booker T. Washington, Jr., and niece Laura Murray Washington.
Booker T. Washington, 1915
Thomas, Vivien (1910-1985). Described as the “most untalked about,
unappreciated, unknown giant in the African American community,”
by Dr. Levi Watkins, Jr., Vivien Thomas received an honorary doctorate
from Johns Hopkins University in 1976, and while this was undoubtedly
memorable, the decades which preceded this moment were equally unforgettable.
Johnson, Henry (1897-1929). Henry Johnson in New York City
Ticker Tape Parade, 1919 Henry Johnson’s claim to fame was his
remarkable performance during WWI in France on the night of May 14,
Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts were assigned to sentry duty at a
bridge held by American forces. They were ambushed by a twenty man
German Army raiding party. Although Roberts was taken prisoner, Johnson
killed four German soldiers in hand-to-hand combat, wounded twenty others
and rescued Roberts. His heroic stubborn defense of the bridge sent the other
German soldiers into retreat. After this skirmish which was soon dubbed the
Battle of Henry Johnson,” it was discovered that the sergeant was wounded 21 times.
He was treated in a French hospital for bayonet wounds in the back,
stabs on the left arm and knife cuts on the face and lips. Johnson was awarded the
Croix de Guerre, France’s highest military honor, becoming the first enlisted American
soldier to win the medal.
Lewis, Kossola Cudjo (c. 1841–1935). Cudjo Lewis is considered the last
survivor of the last slave ship to enter the United States. Born around 1841 to a
Yoruba family in the Banté region of Dahomey (today Benin),
Manley, Effa (1900-1981)
Abe and Effa Manley Born in 1900. In 1935, the Manleys co-owned a Negro League
baseball team,called the Eagles, in Brooklyn, New York. The team relocated to
Newark, New Jersey the following year. As business manager for the team, Effa’s
responsibilities included financial management, contractual negotiations, and
team promotion. The team won the Negro League World Series in 1946.
Mr. Winton Walker and his Second Street School pupils, circa 1920
Houston Negro Chamber of Commerce, 1946
Ernie Banks, Larry Doby, Matty Brescia, Jackie Robinson and unidentified boys at
Martin’s Stadium, Memphis, TN, 1953
Late on the night of August 30, Frank Rizzo, Police Commissioner of Philadelphia and his aides were preparing to strike directly against the Black Panthers. By 2 a.m., the department was assembling 100 men, all of them experienced marksmen, to be deployed into three raiding parties against three Panther headquarters. The necessary
warrants had been obtained, and Rizzo went home to bed.
“The raiding party virtually dismantled the two-story building on Wallace Street, which also served as a residence for some Panthers. The plumbing was ripped out and furniture was destroyed. As the occupants emerged, hands above their
hands, the lone woman was led to a van and searched by a policewoman. The men, most of them bare-chested and
barefoot, were lined up against the wall. Before the men could be searched, however, six of them were suddenly standing
there naked. Their pants and shorts had dropped to the sidewalk and they had stepped out of them. A photographer for the [Philadelphia] Daily News, Elwood P. Smith, snapped off a photograph and the sight of six Panthers and their bare buttocks was distributed around the world by United Press International. The Panthers later said the police ordered them to strip…Source: Philadelphia Independent Media Center
It’s Showtime, 1922
Members at 1921 Delta Sigma Theta’s national Convention, hosted by Gamma Chapter at the University of Pennsylvania. Shown left to right: front, Virginia Margaret Alexander, Julia Mae Polk, Sadie Tanner Mossell; row 2, Anna R. Johnson, Nellie Rathbone Bright, Pauline Alice Young.
1954-55 Attucks team INDIANAPOLIS — As he and his newly retired high school basketball jersey paraded to the center of the Conseco Fieldhouse floor Thursday, Oscar Robertson barely grinned. Even if no one else knew, he did. The moment was bigger than him, his Hall of Fame career or any number he ever wore on his back. His graying hair and growing midsection told fans it had been a long time since Robertson and his Crispus Attucks High School teammates became the nation’s first all-black team to win a state championship. But 54 years, as it turns out, doesn’t heal all wounds. It doesn’t make the fight go away.
So when an Indianapolis promoter first approached Robertson last month about retiring his jersey as part of a celebration to honor the basketball traditions at Attucks and Washington high schools, he said no. Not unless they honored the entire groundbreaking 1954-55 Attucks team. Not unless they raised a banner for coaches Ray Crowe and Al Spurlock. And not unless they retired the numbers of eight other former Tigers who made the Indiana Basketball Hall of Fame.
Charlie Parker and Miles Davis
Abbott, Robert Sengstacke (1870-1940). Born in 1870 to formerly enslaved parents, Abbott attended Hampton Institute in Virginia and then went on to graduate from Kent Law School (now Chicago-Kent College of Law) in 1899. In May 1905 he started publishing the Chicago Defender. In the early years he personally sold subscriptions to the paper and advertising by going door to door. The paper attacked racial injustice, particularly lynching in the south. The Defender did not use the words “Negro” or “black” in its pages. Instead, African Americans were referred to as “the Race” and black men and women as “Race men and Race women.”
Many places in the south effectively banned the paper, especially when, during World War I, Abbott actively tried to convince southern blacks to migrate to the north. Abbott managed to get railroad porters to carry his papers south and he ran articles, editorials, cartoons — even train schedules and job listings — to convince the Defender’s southern readers to come north. The “Great Northern Migration,” as it was called in the Defender, resulted in more than one million blacks migrating north, about 100,000 of them coming to Chicago. The Defender was passed from person to person, and read aloud in barbershops and churches. It is estimated that at its height each paper sold was read by four to five African Americans, putting its readership at over 500,000 people each week.
In the burgeoning economic times of the 1920s, with hundreds of new products and the growth of advertising, the Defender became an economic success and Abbott became one of the first African American millionaires. He died in Chicago in 1940, with the Defender still a success
Follis, Charles W. (1879-1910)The first African American professional football player,
Charles W. Follis, was born February 3, 1879, in Cloverdale, Virginia.
In 1904, Follis signed a contract with the Shelby Athletic Club, later the Shelby Blues.
With that contract, he became the first professional African American football player.
Follis played on the team with Branch Rickey, the Ohio Wesleyan University student
and future Brooklyn Dodger owner
who would sign Jackie Robinson to integrate major league baseball in 1947.
Like other players who integrated sport teams,
Follis faced discrimination. Players on other team targeted Follis with rough play that resulted
in injuries. At a game in Toledo in 1905, fans taunted him with racial slurs until the Toledo team
captain addressed the crowd and asked them to stop. In Shelby, Follis joined his teammates at a
local tavern after a game; the owner denied him entry. At the Thanksgiving Day game of the 1906 season,
Follis suffered a career-ending injury. Follis turned to baseball, a sport he played for many years
in the spring and summer. Having played for the Wooster College and in the Ohio Trolley League,
Follis was an experienced baseball player, but could only play in segregated baseball leagues.
He played for the Cuban Giants, a black baseball team, as a catcher.
“Billie Holiday stands with LAPD Detective Gosline in front of a courtroom while awaiting trial in the early 1950s. Holiday was singing “Strange Fruit” (a song about the lynching of African-Americans) in a West Hollywood club, when a member of the audience proceeded to heckle her. She left the stage midway through the song, allegedly slashed the heckler with a knife, and resumed singing. She was charged with assault and battery but the case was dismissed when the victim, under cross-examination by Walter Gordon, refused to give his name and address.”
Jackie Robinson with Joe Louis in 1946
Dicky also spelled Dickie , by name of William Wells (born June 10, 1907/09, Centerville, Tenn., U.S.—died Nov. 12, 1985, New York, N.Y.) leading black American jazz trombonist noted, especially in the big band era, for his melodic creativity and expressive techniques.
The Niagara Movement Annual Meeting, Boston, 1907
The Niagara Movement—the first, collective civil rights movement of the 20th century—took shape in July 1905 when W. E. B. Du Bois gathered an elite group of African Americans to challenge the accommodation policies of Booker T. Washington.
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. (December 18, 1912–July 4, 2002) was an American general, commander of the World War II Tuskegee Airmen.
“All great people glorify their history and look back upon their early attainments with a spiritual vision.”
Kelly Miller, 1863-1939